A plunger pump is a positive displacement pump with a fixed high-pressure seal and a moving smooth cylindrical plunger. This sets them apart from piston pumps and allows them to operate at higher pressures. This pump is commonly used to transport sewage from municipal and industrial sources. A plunger pump is a well-known form of reciprocating pump that features a fixed high-pressure seal and a smooth cylindrical plunger that slides over it. These two properties separate the plunger pump from the piston pump. It can handle more pressure than a piston pump. As a result, it is suitable for use in high-pressure applications.
Piston and plunger pumps use a cylinder that expands and constricts to suck and pressurize the fluid. Because they are reciprocating pumps, the chamber expands and constricts according to the reciprocating motion of the plunger (upward and downward; back and forth) rather than a circular (rotating) movement. A plunger pump is also known as a high-viscosity pump, high-pressure pump, or high-pressure pump due to its high pumping pressure. These pumps can pump both solid and fluid materials. These reciprocating pumps are used to transport wastewater from industrial and municipal sources.
Plunger pumps are used as dependable high-pressure pumps in a wide range of industrial applications, such as cleaning and process technology in the chemical industry. Pumps that attain varying pressure levels and can handle tiny or high flow rates are known as displacement pumps. They transport all liquid media over a wide temperature range, including water, oils, and liquid gases. With the oscillating plunger pumps, even abrasive media like detergent slurries or carbon mashes may be readily pushed at varying pressure levels. Positive displacement is used in plunger pumps, where a high-pressure seal is stationary, enabling a smooth cylindrical plunger to glide within the seal. As a result, they can withstand significantly greater pressures and are frequently employed to transport industrial or municipal effluent.
PLUNGER PUMP CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS
The materials used in the building of plunger pumps vary depending on the pump’s use. The materials used in the cylinder and housing must be sturdy enough to endure the circumstances of the neighbouring operational environment. The material in contact with the pumped medium must be corrosion-resistant to the liquid.
The following are the most typical materials used in the building of the pump: Cast iron has a high nominal force because of its scratch resistance, hardness, and tensile strength. Steels and stainless-steel alloys are also chemically and oxidation resistant. When compared to plastics, these materials offer outstanding tensile strength that is similar to higher pressure ratings.
Plastic materials are affordable and offer a wide spectrum of chemical and corrosion resistance. Other materials commonly utilized in pump construction include nickel, ceramic, bronze, brass, and aluminum alloys.
COMPONENTS OF PLEDGER PUMPS
The plunger of a pump is a solid component that reciprocates inside the cylinder. It aids the pump’s ability to suck and expel liquids. When it goes downhill, it pulls fluid into the pump, but when it moves higher, it discharges the fluid. It’s constructed of steel, stainless steel, or aluminum, among other materials.
A compression chamber is another name for a cylinder. The plunger in the cylinder goes up and down. The external fluid begins to enter the cylinder as the plunger creates a cavity inside the cylinder. As the plunger rises, it decreases the cylinder’s surface area and pressurizes the fluid.
This valve is used to draw fluid into the cylinder from the outside. It’s a one-way valve, so liquids can’t flow backward.
It also functions as a one-way valve. The exit valve is used to let the fluid out of the pump.
It’s a seal that can withstand a lot of pressure. It is a pump component that remains stationary.
WORKING OF PLUNGER PUMP
The plunger pump, unlike a piston pump, does not move with the piston and has a fixed seal in the stuffing box. The suction valve is opened by a retracting plunger that causes a suction effect in the liquid end. The liquid end receives the medium. After that, the plunger travels forward. The plunger increases the pressure of the fluid to be pumped by displacing the available volume through its own volume.
The suction valve shuts and the pressure valve opens, allowing the pressured fluid to enter the process area. The plunger’s forward and backward action is repeated indefinitely, opening and closing the valves. The cycles might be repeated hundreds of times each minute, depending on the application. Suction-side and discharge-sided pulsation dampers, which ensure uniform flow and minimized pulsations, are used to prevent an intermittent flow of fluid.
Several plungers can be utilized in a single pump to enhance the flow rate and make the flow rate more equal. They use the same pressure pipe to supply the shared process area. Depending on the design and use, the number of plungers in the pump varies. The plungers are propelled by a crankshaft with connecting rods and crosshead extensions, or by hydraulics. The angular locations on the crankshaft can be distributed in such a way that the pressure peaks in the pump are staggered if there are many plungers.
A plunger pump features a fixed seal inside the stuffing box. The plunger pump’s main components are the connecting rod, crankshaft, and plunger. A connecting rod connects the plunger of the pump to the crankshaft. An electric motor is also connected to this crankshaft. The motor translates the rotating action of the motor into reciprocating motion as it supplies power to the crankshaft. The plunger receives this power from the crankshaft through a connecting rod. The plunger begins to move upward and downward inside the cylinder when it receives reciprocating action.
A vacuum is created within the pump chamber as the plunger moves lower. Due to the vacuum, a pressure differential exists between the exterior fluid pressure and the internal fluid pressure. The plunger then suctions liquids into the chamber. The suction valve closes and the plunger goes upward when it sucks the fluid according to the criteria. The volume of the chamber lowers as the plunger advances upward, and the fluid pressurizes. The outlet valve opens when the internal fluid pressure exceeds the delivery tank pressure, allowing fluid to flow into the delivery tank or another specified location.
Plunger pumps are reciprocating pumps that transfer media through a cylindrical cylinder using a plunger or piston. A steam-powered, pneumatic, hydraulic, or electric actuator moves the plunger or piston. Rotary piston and plunger pumps employ a crank mechanism to provide a reciprocating motion along an axis, which creates pressure in a cylinder or power cylinder, which forces gas or liquid through the pump. The pressure in the chamber controls the valves at the suction and discharge locations. Piston pumps are utilized in pressures ranging from 70 to 2,070 bar (1,000 to 30,000 psi).
In low-pressure applications, piston pumps are employed. The volume of fluid expelled is equal to the plunger or piston’s area multiplied by its stroke. The materials used in plunger pumps are chosen for wear and interaction with the medium. Bronze, brass, steel, stainless steel, iron, nickel alloy, and other materials are used as component materials. Plunger pumps used in general service or oil service, for example, frequently feature an iron cylinder and plunger. The medium being transferred comes into touch with the piston, discharge valves, and suction valves, and the material selection is dependent on the liquid being transported. All-ceramic plungers can be utilized in performance applications where continuous-duty plunger pumps are required, however, they may not be suited for use with very acidic media types.
PLUNGER PUMP APPLICATIONS
Plunger pumps are useful in a broad range of situations. They provide ideal solutions whenever liquid media must be pushed at high pressure. Pumps for cleaning operations with a few kilos of performance to pumping systems for the process sector with performance needs of several megawatts and a weight of 40 tonnes are examples of applications. The high pressure pumps can attain pressure stages of up to 3,000 bar.
Plunger pumps can be utilized 24 hours a day, 8,000 hours a year, thanks to smart design, optimum material selection, flexible speed control, and great precision in manufacturing. In a liquid state, any media can be pumped. At typical temperatures, they can be water or oil, but they can also be hot oils and liquid gases like carbon dioxide and ammonia. Plunger pumps are also well suited for abrasive media such as detergent slurries or coal mashes due to their functional concept.
In association with Cat Pumps, Kiron Hydraulic Needs Private Limited offers a full solution for your Plunger pump requirements. These pumps are made in accordance with industry standards to guarantee that they work well. We have a significant presence not only in the country but all over the world as a consequence of our unwavering attitude toward our business and devoted approach to our clients.