A Hot oil pump is a mechanical device that circulates oil to moving elements of an engine, such as bearings, camshafts, and pistons, in order to prevent wear and tear. It is one of the most important components of an engine’s lubrication system that must not fail or malfunction, or else the engine would break down.
“The high-temperature thermic fluid pump” is a device that moves heat-transfer oils at high temperatures. Thermic Fluid Pump (also known as hot oil circulating pump) is a type of pump that circulates hot oil. It is the most effective way to improve leakage control while also conserving energy. Thermic fluid pumps have been used in sectors such as maritime, wood, chemical, petrochemical, metal, food, drinks, pulp, and paper for many years to solve the problem of circulating fuel as part of a larger boiler feed. A thermic fluid pump has the advantage of being able to transport highly abrasive fluid, which makes it ideal for use in heat transfer facilities.
A single-flow single-stage volute pump with a shaft seal or a magnetically-coupled pump without a shaft seal is offered in the centrifugal hot oil pump design. The process liquid enters a centrifugal pump through the suction nozzle and subsequently the impeller, which is located in the middle of the pump. The impeller spins the liquid in the cavities between the vanes outward as it turns. A low-pressure region is generated when the liquid leaves the impeller’s eye, forcing the additional liquid to flow toward the inlet. The higher the velocity of the liquid at the vane tip and the more energy is given to the liquid, the quicker or larger the impeller.
HOT OIL PUMP WORKING PRINCIPLE
The gap between the cylinder wall and the piston rings is sealed by oil poured into the cylinder. This keeps the compressed air from escaping through the pistons, increasing the engine’s overall efficiency. Oil pressure in an engine may reach 10 psi for every 1000 revolutions per minute (rpm), which is around 55-65 psi. The pressure on the crankshaft journal and bearing is substantially higher than the 50-60 psi established by the relief valve on the relative pump and can reach hundreds of psi.
Because engines must be adequately lubricated while running, a hot oil pump is necessary in an engine for lubrication. The oil pump is normally powered by gear from the crankshaft and begins pumping oil as soon as the engine is started. Oil injectors are not used in some oil-free engines, such as two-stroke engines. Oil travels from a strainer into a hot oil pump, then via a heat exchanger, where it is cooled. After cooling, the oil passes via the galleries to the engine’s moving components before returning to the sump. A little amount of oil is transferred to an injector when an engine is designed with one.
The relative speeds of the crankshaft journal in feet per second, not rpm, cause this tremendous pressure. The bearing, bearing width, oil viscosity, and temperature are all taken into account, as well as the bearing clearance (leakage rate).
Friction is the adversary of moving components because it degrades performance and shortens product life. In combustion engines, the oil circulatory system has two fundamental functions: first, it reduces friction, and second, it removes heat from pistons, bearings, and shafts. The engine will fail catastrophically if the lubrication is insufficient or improper.
The engine block and head have honeycombed passages enabling lubricants and coolants to flow through. Oil is forced through these channels by the oil pumps, which lubricate the whole system. Typically, oil is poured from the sump around the engine, passing through a mesh filter to remove bigger particles.
The major function of the hot oil pumps is to circulate high-pressure engine oil to the bearings, pistons, and camshaft. This lubricates the systems, enables the use of larger fluid bearings, and aids in engine cooling. In addition to lubrication, pressurized oil is increasingly being utilized to power tiny actuators. Hydraulic tappets in camshaft and valve actuation were one of the first prominent applications. The tensioner for a timing chain or VVT hubs for variable valve timing systems is two examples of current applications.
TYPES OF HOT OIL PUMP
ROTOR HOT OIL PUMP
A gerotor pump is a type of hot oil pump with a rotor. It has an inner gear that revolves within the rotor’s outer ring. The inner rotor has one less lobe than the outer rotor and is slightly offset from the outer rotor. This causes the outer rotor to spin at around 80% of the inner gear’s speed.
The oil is pulled from the input port and pushed towards the output port, creating a bellow-like pumping movement. Close tolerance is necessary for effective pumping continuality in the rotor type of Hot oil pump. In the crankcase, the pump is installed.
TWIN GEAR HOT OIL PUMP
An external pump is another name for a dual-gear hot oil pump. It is positioned on the engine’s bottom, inside the oil pan. It pumps oil using two intermeshing gears. The first gear is driven by a shaft, and the second gear is driven by the first gear. The crankshaft, camshaft, or distributor shaft are commonly linked to the shaft that drives the first gear.
From the pickup tube intake to the outlet, the gear teeth collect oil and convey it around the outer gear. The oil cannot flow rearward to the intake because of the limited clearance between the gears.
FRONT COVER HOT OIL PUMP
An internal or exterior pump is also known as a front-cover hot oil pump. It’s commonly affixed to the engine cover’s front. It works in the same way as a rotor pump, which has an inner driving gear and an outer rotor. The inner drive is positioned directly on the crankshaft in this example.
The direct-drive method eliminates the need for a separate pump drive shaft, The engine, and the pump both revolve at the same speed. As a result, as compared to a camshaft or distributor-powered pump, greater pressure is created at idle. On most overhead cam engines, as well as late-model pushrod engines, front-cover oil pumps are employed.
Kiron Hydraulic needs private limited with Dickow Pumps specializes in the design, supply, and servicing of hot oil pumps also referred to as thermal fluid heating systems for the process industries. Our services include complete system design and supply, as well as parts supply and maintenance throughout the life span of the system. The systems we offer are expertly designed and serviced to produce consistent and high-temperature heating at low pressures